Youth Unemployment

Youth Unemployment

Jan 13, 2010
14 Comments
TOPIC: Youth Unemployment
WANTED: Your Practical Ideas
Current world population includes an estimated 1.2 billion young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years, which is about 24.7% of the world’s working age population.  Worldwide youth unemployment is high, almost three times higher than the adult unemployment rate. With the economic downturn, the worldwide youth unemployment is expected to reach 15% in 2009 (International Labor Organization, 2008).  In certain parts of the world, i.e., Sub-Saharan Africa , youth unemployment rates can be as high as 60%. More than one third of the young people in the world are unemployed, have completely given up looking for a job or are working but still living below the $2 a day poverty line (ILO), or have migrated.  Young job seekers face increasing difficulties finding work in the current economic scenario.
How can youths be part of the solution?
The Essay Competition 2010 invites youths to share ideas on:
How can you tackle youth unemployment through youth-led solutions?
Please answer both questions:
1. How does youth unemployment affect you, your country, town or local community?
2. What can you do, working together with your peers, to find a sustainable solution for job seekers through youth entrepreneurship?  Think specifically about the barriers youths face in the labor market and how to tackle difficulties in accessing capital for business startups.
We encourage you to give concrete examples if you have personal experience as a young entrepreneur and if not share your ideas about how you would go about creating a business/ work opportunities in your local community/ town/ country.
Awards are sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Norway , the Government of Sweden , and the World Bank.
1. Essay
Eight finalists will participate in the Final Jury in Stockholm , Sweden , in May 2010, and attend the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE).
Money awards:
1st prize: 3,000 USD
2nd prize: 2,000 USD
3rd prize: 1,000 USD
2. Video
Author of the winning video will be invited for a screening at the occasion of the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE), held in Stockholm , Sweden , in May 2010.
Money awards:
1st prize: 2,000 USD
2nd prize: 1,000 USD
3rd prize: 500 USD
The jury reserves the right to modify award amounts based on the number of winning essays / videos selected.

WANTED: Your Practical Ideas

Current world population includes an estimated 1.2 billion young people between the ages of 15 and 24 years, which is about 24.7% of the world’s working age population.  Worldwide youth unemployment is high, almost three times higher than the adult unemployment rate. With the economic downturn, the worldwide youth unemployment is expected to reach 15% in 2009 (International Labor Organization, 2008).  In certain parts of the world, i.e., Sub-Saharan Africa , youth unemployment rates can be as high as 60%. More than one third of the young people in the world are unemployed, have completely given up looking for a job or are working but still living below the $2 a day poverty line (ILO), or have migrated.  Young job seekers face increasing difficulties finding work in the current economic scenario.

How can youths be part of the solution?

The Essay Competition 2010 invites youths to share ideas on:

How can you tackle youth unemployment through youth-led solutions?

Please answer both questions:

1. How does youth unemployment affect you, your country, town or local community?

2. What can you do, working together with your peers, to find a sustainable solution for job seekers through youth entrepreneurship?  Think specifically about the barriers youths face in the labor market and how to tackle difficulties in accessing capital for business startups.

We encourage you to give concrete examples if you have personal experience as a young entrepreneur and if not share your ideas about how you would go about creating a business/ work opportunities in your local community/ town/ country.

Awards are sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Norway , the Government of Sweden , and the World Bank.

1. Essay

Eight finalists will participate in the Final Jury in Stockholm , Sweden , in May 2010, and attend the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE).

Money awards:

1st prize: 3,000 USD

2nd prize: 2,000 USD

3rd prize: 1,000 USD

2. Video

Author of the winning video will be invited for a screening at the occasion of the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics (ABCDE), held in Stockholm , Sweden , in May 2010.

Money awards:

1st prize: 2,000 USD

2nd prize: 1,000 USD

3rd prize: 500 USD

The jury reserves the right to modify award amounts based on the number of winning essays / videos selected.


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Comments:

  1. Being a blog writer myself, I really appreciate the time you took in wriitng this article. I am currently reading it on my Blackberry and will scan it once I get home.

  2. I thought this was going to be another long boring blog post, but I was pleasantly suprised. I will be posting a backlink on my blog, as I am quite sure my readers will find this more than interesting.

  3. Please may i know how to register for this competition. I am highly interested.

  4. http://www.essaycompetition.org/

  5. Pls can I know how to go registering for this competition

  6. Youth Unemployment
    Unemployment arises whenever the supply of labour exceeds the demand
    for it at the prevailing wage rate. Causes of unemployment can therefore be analyzed from both the supply and the demand sides of the labour market in Nigeria. On the supply side, there is the rapidly growing urban labour force arising from rural-urban migration. Rural-urban migration is usually explained in terms of push-pull factors. The push factors include the pressure resulting from man-land ratio in the rural areas, and the existence of serious underemployment arising from seasonal cycle of climate. The factors are further strengthened in Nigeria by lack of infrastructural facilities, which makes rural life unattractive. The pull factors include a wide rural-urban income differential in favour of urban dwellers and a presumed higher probability of securing lucrative employment in the cities. Added to these is the concentration of social amenities in the urban centers. This implies that the rural areas are neglected in the allocation of social and economic opportunities.
    The United Nations report that youth migrants in Africa are three times more in number than other migrants. The report also added that the urbanization rate of the youth was 32 per cent in 1990, compared to less than 25 percent for the non-youth population. It is estimated that by the year 2010, over 50 percent of the youths in Africa will be residing in urban areas where job opportunities are limited to few modern sectors and establishments. In this respect, the United Nations recommends that programmes of integrated rural development and re-orientation of economic activity and social investments towards the rural areas need to be embarked upon to create an appropriate rural-urban economic balance.

    Another supply factor facing Nigeria is rapid population growth. Going by the 1991
    census, projections for the future indicate that the population could reach about 115 million by the year 2005 given the annual growth rate of 2.8 per cent . It is argued that the high population growth rate has resulted in rapid growth of the labour force which is far outstripping the supply of jobs. It is pointed out that the effect of the accelerated growth of population on Nigeria’s unemployment problem is multifaceted. Firstly, it affects the supply side through a high and rapid increase in labour force relative to the absorptive capacity of the economy. Secondly, the increase in the number of children in the population presently implies a serious burden.
    Other supply-side factors are what some experts describe as inappropriate school
    curricula and lack of employable skills. Several analysts argue that in so far as the formal
    sector is concerned, the skills that job seekers possess do not match the needs and demands of employers in Nigeria . It is argued that Nigeria’s education system, with its liberal bias, does not just over supply the labour market with graduates and school leavers, but also does not produce the type of skills demanded in formal employment. The total graduates out-turn by higher institutions in Nigeria which was 73,339 in 1986/87 rose to 131,016 in 1996/97. This substantial growth of higher education has been accompanied by increasing difficulties in finding suitable employment by graduates in a variety of courses. This shows that there are imbalances between the supply and demand for these different categories of highly educated manpower.

    Therefore rapid expansion of our educational system first acts directly to increase the supply of educated manpower above the corresponding demand for them and consequently contributes its quota to the problem of urban youth unemployment in Nigeria.
    It was also observed that high unemployment incidence of secondary school-leavers is
    a reflection of improper coordination of the educational system. Lambo (1987), criticized the
    government expenditure policy whereby most of government projects (industries and public
    utilities) were concentrated in urban areas at the utter neglect of the rural areas because of its tendency to encourage mass exodus of rural skilled and unskilled labour from villages into the urban centers thus causing urban unemployment.
    One of the major aspects of development is provision of employment opportunities for the masses. It was in recognition of this and the social, political and economic implications of youth unemployment that president Ibrahim Babangida appointed a committee to deliberate on strategies for dealing with mass unemployment in January 1986. The recommendations of the committee resulted in the establishment of the National Directorate of Employment on the 22nd of November, 1986.The NDE mandate includes:
    to design and implement programmes to combat mass unemployment; to articulate policies aimed at developing work programmes with labour intensive potentials; and, to obtain and maintain a databank on employment with a view to acting as a clearing house to link job seekers with employers of labour.
    National Youth Employment and Vocational Skill Development Programme was designed for youths in recognition of the fact that over 70 percent of the unemployed people in the country are youths who lack productive and marketable skill. This was aimed at providing unemployed youths with basic skills that are needed in the economy. This is achieved by attaching them as apprentices to companies, ministries, parastatal and professional craftsmen and women. Some of them are given admission into vocational training institutions to learn a trade. Approved training organizations and individual craftsmen are paid a fee for imparting their skills to the beneficiaries of the scheme. Also this scheme was designed to provide unemployed youths with simple basic skills that would enable them covert discarded materials like snail shells, coral, coconut shells and other scrap materials into valuable object like decorative items, toys etc.
    Agricultural Sector Employment Programme was designed to provide self-employment in agriculture to both graduates and non-graduates. Those who were interested in farming were given the relevant training and orientation. They are also provided with land and loans to start farming ventures. Thus, the programme was aimed at revamping agriculture and providing jobs for the unemployed. Two schemes were designed under this programme such as: Graduate Agricultural Loan Scheme, Participants in this scheme are holders of B.Sc, HND, NCE or OND certificates in agriculture. School-leavers Agriculture Scheme, was designed for secondary school leavers and those un-trained in agricultural methods.
    Small Scale Industries and Graduate Employment Programme is designed to encourage and aid unemployed Nigerians to set up and run their own businesses. This programme helps the participants to translate their business ideas into viable commercial ventures. NDE conducts courses in entrepreneurship prior to making loans available to them through its job creation loan guarantee scheme. Another scheme under this programme is the mature people’s scheme, which is targeted at those who are either retired or are preparing to retire from paid employment and willing to maintain an economically productive life.
    Adewoye Wasiu O.
    ( O.A.U., Ile-Ife).

  7. Thank god that there’s smth like this,i’m very happy and i’ll do anything humanly possible to contribute towards the betterment of my society

  8. YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT
    Unemployment arises whenever the supply of labour exceeds the demand for it at the prevailing wage rate (Adebayo, 1999). Causes of unemployment can therefore be analyzed from both the supply and the demand sides of the labour market in Nigeria
    Unemployment in Nigeria could be broadly divided into two main healings.
    1. Open unemployment and 2. Underemployment or disguised unemployment
    According to Lambo (1987), open unemployment is mainly associated with the urban areas of the country, while disguised unemployment applies to the rural agricultural zone.
    Todaro (1992) described open unemployment to involve people who are able and often eager to work but for whom no suitable jobs are available, whereas underemployment or disguised unemployment is mainly for people who are normally working full time but whose productivity is so low that a reduction in hours would have a negligible impact on total output.
    According to Heckman et al, (1987) Labour Force Surveys have shown that the rate of unemployment is significantly higher in urban areas than rural areas. This is because rural areas usually have more self-employed workers whether in family farms or non-agricultural enterprises. This situation of rural areas is known as disguised unemployment.
    The large-scale unemployment among youths is encouraging the development of street youths in Nigeria. The street youth, denied of legitimate means of livelihood, grow up in a culture that encourages criminal behaviour (Chigunta, 2002). The unemployed youths survive by engaging in various activities such as petty trading, casual work, borrowing, stealing, pickpocketing, prostitution, touting and other illegal activities. Some have become drunkards others are on drugs such as marijuana and mandrax.
    Bennel (2000) argued that urban society is becoming increasingly criminalized, especially with the proliferation of youth gangs. Several studies have shown that majority of
    prison inmates are youth aged 30 years and below. Also, delinquency, crime and drug abuse are on the increase among youths (Igbinovia,1988).
    One of the major aspects of development is provision of employment opportunities for the masses. It was in recognition of this and the social, political and economic implications of youth unemployment that president Ibrahim Babangida appointed a committee to deliberate on strategies for dealing with mass unemployment in January 1986.
    Government to design and implement programmes to combat mass unemployment; To articulate policies aimed at developing work programmes with labour intensive potentials; and to obtain and maintain a databank on employment with a view to acting as a clearing house to link job seekers with employers of labour.
    Special Public Works Programme is designed to provide immediate temporary employment to a large number of the unemployed. Examples of the kinds of public works project being executed are:
     Construction and maintenance of roads and other infrastructure
     Environmental sanitation
     Land clearing and other farm support service.
    Agricultural Sector Employment Programme was designed to
    provide self-employment in agriculture to both graduates and non-graduates. Those who were interested in farming were given the relevant training and orientation. They are also provided with land and loans to start farming ventures.

    OLALEYE BUKOLA AKANDE
    08035154628

  9. YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT
    Unemployment arises whenever the supply of labour exceeds the demand for it at the prevailing wage rate. Causes of unemployment can therefore be analyzed from both the supply and the demand sides of the labour market in Nigeria. On the supply side, there is the rapidly growing urban labour force arising from rural-urban migration. Rural-urban migration is usually explained in terms of push-pull factors. The push factors include the pressure resulting from man-land ratio in the rural areas, and the existence of serious underemployment arising from seasonal cycle of climate. The factors are further strengthened in Nigeria by lack of infrastructural facilities, which makes rural life unattractive.
    The implications are both social, economic and political. It is argued in one paper that youth unemployment is potentially dangerous as it sends disturbing signal to all segments of the Nigerian Society. The rate of youth unemployment in Nigeria is high, even at the period of economic normalcy i.e. the oil boom of the 1970s (6.2%); 1980s (9.8%) and the 1990s (11.5%). Youth unemployment therefore is not a recent phenomenon as is conveyed in the various tables in this paper. The theoretical standpoint of the paper is influenced by functionalist school of thought, with a bias for European school of modern ism which argues that youth play a central role in the overall survival of Nigeria. Ignoring the political, economic and social roles they play amounts to threatening the very survival of Nigeria as a nation. Thus to reduce unemployment, the paper suggests among others, the establishment of Work Incentive Programme (WIN) by the Nigerian State, as is done in the capitalist America.

    Government in league with the private sector it is further suggested, can create job corps for school dropouts as one major remedy to unemployment. The paper further sees hope for Nigeria only if Youths are mobilized by way of genuinely socializing them into taking their roles in the stratification system.
    National Youth Employment and Vocational Skill Development Programme was designed for youths in recognition of the fact that over 70 percent of the unemployed people in the country are youths who lack productive and marketable skill. This was aimed at providing unemployed youths with basic skills that are needed in the economy. This is achieved by attaching them as apprentices to companies, ministries, parastatal and professional craftsmen and women. Some of them are given admission into vocational training institutions to learn a trade. Approved training organizations and individual craftsmen are paid a fee for imparting their skills to the beneficiaries of the scheme. Also this scheme was designed to provide unemployed youths with simple basic skills that would enable them covert discarded materials like snail shells, coral, coconut shells and other scrap materials into valuable object like decorative items, toys etc.
    OLAGBAJU GABRIEL OLALEKAN
    07062544414

  10. what about the reference tittle where the literature review are gotten from.that is what is the source of the information.

  11. Very good site, where did you come up with the info in this blog post? Im glad I found it though, ill be checking back soon to see what other articles you have.

  12. plz send me article on youth employment in urban and rural areas.

  13. plz i need an article on d topic:vocational training is answer for unemployment among youths

  14. Pls i need data on unemployment rate, government expenditure, government revenue, investment rate, birth rate immigration

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